The Five Moiety Model of the Universe.

Executive Summary

This document puts forth the idea that the entire universe comprises only five separate types of components. Each of these components is called a moiety.

Each moiety comprises two parts, a particle and a field. It is the field which generates the force on the particle of another moiety. A field of a moiety is described by a potential function, which may be a scalar, vector, or tensor function.

The subdivision of each subatomic particle into moieties is made in such a way so that the field of one moiety type exerts a force on particles of the same moiety type, only.

Quarks, gluons, and the like are not discussed because each of these more well known particle types are combinations of the five moieties. Moieties describe subatomic particles at a more fundamental level.

The treatment given herein is not at odds with any data which has been used to support the Standard Model. Furthermore, the Standard Model does not contradict anything said here about the moieties or their properties.

This model is consistent with the DeBroglie-Bohm (pilot-wave) theory.

Preferentially utilizing this model of the universe facilitates the visualization of properties of subatomic particles by people with more limited mathematical training, so it can be used more effectively in many educational situations.

Background Material

For a reader of this document to more fully understand what this author is trying to say, it is suggested that the reader study what is found here: The Golf Ball Problem

There are two results that are expected by the study of The Golf Ball Problem. The first is to see how quantum mechanical distribution functions can be viewed in a 'classical' way - to make it easier to visualize and to give a feeling of how a wave function can be thought of as existing at a point. The second reason is to show how the potential functions can be non-Newtonian at subatomic distances. This will be used in discussions, below.

The Five Moiety Model

A model is presented herein to describe the makeup of the entire universe. In this model, it is stated that the universe comprises combinations of only five basic building blocks, which are called moieties, but nothing more.

The Definition of a Moiety

A moiety is an entity which comprises a particle component (called a particle) and a field component (called a field). Please notice the use of italics to indicate that these two words refer to the two components of a moiety. The use of the term without italics implies the conventional meaning.

Each moiety has two components, a particle part and a field part. There is never one part without the corresponding other part. There is no particle that is alone (without a field) Also, there is no field that is not associated with a particle.

The fields cause the forces which act on the particles of the same moiety type. That is, the mass-moiety particle, described below, interacts with other mass-moiety particles through all the other mass particle's fields.

In the Five Moiety Model, forces come from a particle interacting with fields, which are everywhere. There are no exchanges of particles to produce force. Also, in this model there are no virtual particles.

The entire universe is composed of protons, neutrons, electrons, neutrinos and their anti-particle counterparts. In addition, there are photons. These are all built out of an admixture of moieties.

In the Five Moiety Model, the five moieties of are fundamental. Furthermore, there is nothing else necessary to build our universe. However, at times, it is convenient to group several subatomic particles together, and deal with the grouped particle as if these were fundamental, as I have done with the quarks, gluons, etc., and call them protons and neutrons. This is for our convenience, nothing more.

Since in the Five Moiety Model there are no force-mediating particles, there is no need for the heavy bosons to explain anything. The fields of the moieties are enough to explain the forces in the universe.

These building blocks are different from the ones viewed by most physicists. In this discourse, terms are used that have a conventional meaning. I choose to retain the terms, but to use the terms in a different way. My purpose for doing this is to retain clarity in my presentation. For instance, the term "charge" is used, but I will give it a meaning which is slightly different from that which is conventionally applied to the term.

Moiety Particles

A particle is a highly localized region in space that may possess the attributes of mass, charge, spin and perhaps other things. The particle of each of the moieties is not a small billiard ball of classical physics which is located at a point. Rather, it must be described by a probability distribution function (wave function) which is well known to students of quantum mechanics.

Nevertheless, the particle may be viewed as a small (but finite) sphere containing a uniform plasma like stuff peculiar to the moiety type.

Moiety Fields and Potential Functions

A field is a scalar, spinor, vector or tensor function. The fields of the different moieties can be characterized by a single number (scalar), by two numbers (spinor), three numbers (vector) or by numbers of higher order tensors. Technically, scalars, spinors and vectors are all tensors. However, The use of the term tensor is reserved here for those tensors of order 2 or higher.

It is the field of a moiety that gives rise to the forces exerted on all the other particles of the same moiety type. That is to say, The field of one moiety type exerts forces on particles of the same moiety type, only.

The field of one moiety type at any point in space is the sum of all of the fields of all of the other moieties of the same moiety type.

A force and potential differences are measurable in experiments. However, a potential, per se, is not measurable. A potential is described by a mathematical function that, in most cases, is not unique. Nevertheless, putting forth an expression for a potential gives us the ability to calculate the value of the force, even though we are not able to measure the value of the potential. The potential functions define and describes the fields in the discussions, below.

Potential functions referred to by the symbol, $V$, are single valued, differentiable, except perhaps at isolated points, and have no singularities.

The field of each of the moieties is of infinite extent in space. In other words, the field associated with each particle will extend over an infinite distance, and in all directions. It follows that there is no point in the universe at which a field does not exist.

For the purposes of discussion, let us say that the distance from the center of a particle is divided into three regions, from $r$=0 to roughly the size of a large molecule (called 'subatomic'), from the subatomic region into reasonable classical distances ('classical') and from this limit to infinity ('astronomical').

It will be interesting to see whether or not the field potentials can not be specified (at subatomic distances) to explain the Strong and Weak forces of conventional wisdom.

As particles move in space, the changes in the fields propagate at the speed of light. Proper relativistic properties of the moieties is assumed. Relativistic corrections to the potential functions are given by: Jefimenko's equations.

Moiety Types

There are five types of moieties. These are the mass-moiety, the charge-moiety, the spin-moiety, the neutrino-moiety, and the photon-moiety.

The elementary particles of current wisdom, e.g., the electron, the proton, the neutron, the neutrinos and the photons (or quarks and the gluon instead of protons and neutrons, if one prefers), are each built of a combination of moieties. Stern selection rules dictate that there are only certain values of the attributes of the particles that may exist. Furthermore, only specific combinations of moieties may make up the elementary particles (and higher combinations) of the Standard Model

The Mass-Moiety

The mass-moiety particle is a highly localized region of space with the attribute of mass in the conventional sense. The potential function of the field associated with a mass-moiety takes the general form $-k/r$ over classical distances, where $k$ is a constant and $r$ is the distance to the particle. The force that this produces is proportional to the negative of the gradient of the field. In equation form, $F = - \nabla V$.

The force experienced by a mass-moiety which is produced by a second mass-moiety is given by the product of the masses (the values of the attribute of mass) of each of the two particles divided by the square of the distance between the two particles. The force experienced by a particle in the presence of more than another single particle is calculated by using the vector sum of all of the mass moiety fields of all other mass moiety particles.

At least over classical distances, this is very simple field. It was well understood by Newton and it is described by the famous Newton's Law of Gravitation. However, it should be noted that the potential function for the mass-moiety takes the form $-k/r$ over the distances of the classical range (the value of our slightly more than the diameter of a molecule up to reasonable astronomical distances) As is described below, the potential function at subatomic distances does not take the shape used in the classical region. That is, $V \ne -k/r$ when $r$ is extremly small. What form it takes is discussed, below.

The Charge-Moiety

The charge-moiety comprises two parts: the charge-moiety particle and the charge-moiety field. Unlike the mass-moiety, the charge-moiety has a field which is both scalar and vector.

The scalar field associated with the charge-moiety behaves in a manner quite similar to that of the field of the mass-moiety, except that its strength (force on the particle) is much greater.

The vector portion of the charge-moiety field is called a vector potential. The charge moiety scalar potential and vector potential express themselves in two familiar ways: an electric field and a magnetic field. Some rather straightforward equations containing the scalar potential and the vector potential are used to specify the fields which were considered conventional before the development of quantum mechanics.

The electric and magnetic fields are specified by the scalar potential $\phi$, and the vector potential, $\mathbf{A}$.

\begin{align} \mathbf{B} & = \nabla\times\mathbf{A} \\ \end{align} \begin{align} \mathbf{E} & = - \nabla\phi - \frac{\partial \mathbf{A}}{\partial t} \\ \end{align}

The force, $\mathbf{F}$, on a charge, $q$, moving with velocity, $\mathbf{v}$, is given in terms of the electric field, $\mathbf{E}$, and the magnetic field, $\mathbf{B}$. by \begin{align} \mathbf{F} & = q( \mathbf{E} + \mathbf{v} \times\mathbf{B} ) \\ \end{align} Usually, however the expression for the force is given for a large number of charges, that is, in terms of a charge density $\rho$ and a current density, $\mathbf{J}$, thus: \begin{align} \mathbf{F} & = \rho ( \mathbf{E} + \mathbf{J} \times\mathbf{B} ) \\ \end{align}

The scalar and vector potentials must obey the following: \begin{align} \nabla\cdot\mathbf{A} + \epsilon\mu \frac{\partial \phi}{\partial t} = 0 \\ \end{align} \begin{align} \nabla^2\mathbf{A} - \epsilon\mu \frac{\partial^2 \mathbf{A}}{\partial t^2} & = -\mu\mathbf{J} \\ \end{align}

\begin{align} \nabla^2\phi - \epsilon\mu \frac{\partial^2 \phi}{\partial t^2} & = \frac{-\rho}{\epsilon} \\ \end{align} This allowed Oliver Heaviside to render Maxwell's equations as follows:

\begin{align} \nabla \times\mathbf{B} -\, \frac1c\, \frac{\partial\mathbf{E} }{\partial t} & = \frac{4\pi}{c} \mathbf{J} \\ \nabla \times \mathbf{E}\, +\, \frac1c\, \frac{\partial\mathbf{B}}{\partial t} & = \mathbf{0} \\ \nabla \cdot \mathbf{B} & = 0 \\ \nabla \cdot \mathbf{E} & = 4 \pi \rho \\ \end{align} The value of the total electric field at a point in space and the value of the total magnetic field at a point are the vector sum of the fields of all of the other charge-moieties.

The electric and magnetic fields are entirely specified by the scalar and vector potentials. So, we may now, in turn, specify the force exerted on a particle. These equations are obeyed completely by the scalar potential and the vector potential of the charge-moiety fields.

When an electric field and a magentic field are specified by a given scalar potentian and a given vector potential, another set of functions can be generated (by a gauge transformation) that produce identically the same electric and magnetic fields.

The above assumes that the charge velocities are much less than the velocity of light. If this is not true, relativity must be taken into account. In the relativistic domain, the electtric field and magnetic fields are not vectors. Rather, they are tensors.

The Spin-Moiety

The spin-moiety has the most complicated field of all of the moieties. The field is expressed as a spinor.

The Neutrino-Moiety

It has been shown that the rest mass of the neutrino (as observed) is not zero, as was predicted by the Standard Model. Therefore, the neutrino does not move at precisely the speed of light; it actually moves somewhat more slowly.

The neutrino essentially does not interact with charge and the interaction with mass is almost completely negligible, so the neutrino is normally ignored by the molecular physicist. Nevertheless, there are lots of them out there. It could well be that the sum of the rest masses of the neutrinos account to a great extent for the dark matter and dark energy that has been discussed recently so vigorously. The neutrino as observed is made up of a neutrino-moiety, a spin moiety, and a very small part which is a mass-moiety.

The Photon-Moiety

The photon-moiety is essentially the photon of conventional wisdom.

The photon has no rest mass but it has a spin of 1. It has no charge. Its energy, $E$, is equal to Plank's constant, $h$, multiplied by the frequency of the photon. Its momentum is its energy, $E$, divided by the velocity of light, $c$.

Moieties of One Type Can Be Transformed Into Moieties of a Different Type.

It has been clearly shown that it is possible for an electron and its anti-particle counterpart, the positron, to meet in space and annihilate, causing both of the particles to disappear and be replaced by two photons of an energy equal to the sum of the energies of the two annihilated particles. Also, it should be noted that as the photon progresses, it is possible that another event can occur: the creation of a positron-electron pair. The significance of this is that one moiety can be converted into another. This is to say that moieties of one type can be transformed into moieties of a different type.

The photon moves at the speed of light. However, when a photon is absorbed by a particle, the energy of the photon is converted into an increase in mass of the particle according to the famous equation $E = m\,c^2$.

Stable Sub-Atomic Particles

There are only a few sub-atomic particles that have been observed that have an infinite mean lifetime. These are:
the electron with a mass of 0.511, a charge of -1, and a spin of 1/2,
the positron with a mass of 0.511, a charge of +1, and a spin of 1/2,
the proton with a mass of 938, a charge of +1, and a spin of 1/2,
the antiproton with a mass of 938, a charge of -1, and a spin of 1/2,
the photon with a mass of 0, a charge of 0, and a spin of 1,
the neutrino with a mass ~0, a charge of 0, and a spin of 1/2.

Notice that the antielectron, the positron, has the same mass and spin of the electron, but the charge is of opposite sign.
Notice that the antiproton has the same mass and spin of the proton, but the charge is of opposite sign.

Hereinafter, we will use the term stable sub-atomic particle to refer to them.

The Bonding of a Proton and a Neutron

One of the four forces employed by the The Standard Model is the Strong Force. It is said that this force that creates the bond of a proton and a neutron.

The proton exhibits an infinite mean lifetime. But the isolated neutron does not - it has a mean lifetime of 880 seconds. Yet, when a proton bonds with the neutron, the result is as stable as the proton, itself. The Strong force is given the credit for this bonding.

According to the Five Moiety Model, a proton is an admixture of a mass moiety, a charge moiety with a positive value, a spin moiety and perhaps other things. The same is true for the neutron except that the charge is a sum of two charge moieties, one with a positive value and one with a negative value. This means that there is no effective force existing between the proton and the neutron caused by charge. Both the proton and neutron have mass. So, it can be asserted that the total force between the two particles is due almost entirely by mass.

The shape of the potentials of the two masses, according to the discussion in paragraphs above, explains how the two particles can be bound.

This is the same action as the Strong Force of the Standard Model.

A New Paradigm

For the moment, let us take the Five Moiety Model as axiomatic.

Then research efforts in the future would be concerned with determining the properties of the fields and particles of the five moieties and determining the selection rules that determine the amounts of each moiety that comprise each particle.

Every particle that has been observed is made up of an admixture of the five moieties. For instance, the neutrinos, as we know them, are each comprised of the neutrino moiety, plus a spin moiety, plus just a small trace of a mass moiety (there is no charge moiety present)

When a particle experiences a force, it is the vector sum of the forces of the moieties of which the particle is comprised.

If we can now present the concept of a "unit" of a moiety, we can express the makeup of a particle as the sum of unit moieties multiplied by an occupation number. The occupation number expresses the measure of the 'amount' of a unit moiety that is present in the particle.

The potential functions of mass and charge have been studied extensively and are very well understood. But this is true only over the classical range of distances. This document presents a starting point for specifying the nature of these functions at sub-atomic distances. Clearly improvements in this area are required in the future. Clearly, we know nothing about the potential of the neutrino moiety and very little of the potential function of the photon.

What must be understood is that the force experienced by a potential of one moiety is the same as it is in all particles. When experiments are conducted to determine the nature of a potential function of a moiety, then the results would apply to all moieties of the same type, no matter in what particle it is found.

Following the paths described above will produce a new paradigm.

Other Considerations

Differences between this Model and the Standard Model

The Collision of Two Protons

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